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Aujourd’hui — 19 septembre 2019ScienceDaily

Imaging reveals new results from landmark stem cell trial for stroke

Researchers reported today that bone marrow cells used to treat ischemic stroke in an expanded Phase I trial were not only safe and feasible, but also resulted in enhanced recovery compared to a matched historical control group.

Child's gluten intake during infancy, rather than mother's during pregnancy, linked to increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes

New research shows that a child's intake of gluten at age 18 months is associated with a 46% increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes for each extra 10g of gluten consumed.

When is a child an adult?

When does childhood end? That's the question international researchers are asking as they chart age cut-offs for paediatric services around the world. Previous research has found that global health systems do not meet adolescents' needs, yet pediatricians are well placed to provide age-appropriate care to adolescents -- especially if they are trained in adolescent medicine.

Despite growing burden of diet-related disease, medical education does not equip students to provide high quality nutritional care to patients

Worldwide, nutrition is insufficiently incorporated into medical education, meaning that medical students lack the confidence, skills and knowledge to provide nutritional care to patients, according to a systematic review.

'Tunabot: First robotic fish to keep pace with tuna

Mechanical engineers have created the first robotic fish proven to mimic the speed and movements of live yellowfin tuna.

New tool in fight against malaria

Modifying a class of molecules originally developed to treat the skin disease psoriasis could lead to a new malaria drug that is effective against malaria parasites resistant to currently available drugs.

Study of ancient climate suggests future warming could accelerate

The rate at which the planet warms in response to the ongoing buildup of heat-trapping carbon dioxide gas could increase in the future, according to new simulations of a comparable warm period more than 50 million years ago.

Undervalued wilderness areas can cut extinction risk in half

Wilderness areas, long known for intrinsic conservation value, are far more valuable for biodiversity than previously believed, and if conserved, will cut the world's extinction risk in half, according to a new study.

Unlock your smartphone with earbuds

A research team is developing EarEcho, a biometric tool that uses modified wireless earbuds to authenticate smartphone users via the unique geometry of their ear canal. A prototype of the system proved roughly 95% effective.

Cutting emissions gradually will avert sudden jump in warming

Steadily reducing fossil fuel emissions over coming years will prevent millions of premature deaths and help avoid the worst of climate change without causing a large spike in short-term warming that some studies predict, new analysis from finds. The finding dispels the misconception that the air-quality and climate benefits of transitioning to clean energy play out at different timescales -- a sticking point in recent climate negotiations.

Combination therapies could help treat fatal lung cancers

Combining a new class of drug with two other compounds can significantly shrink lung tumors in mice and human cancer cells, new research shows. The study looked at G12C KRAS inhibitors, a new type of drug that targets a specific mutation that can cause cells to multiply uncontrollably and lead to fast-growing cancers.
Hier — 18 septembre 2019ScienceDaily

How rock expands near soil surface in Southern Sierra Nevada

Weathering of subsurface rock in the Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California occurs due more to rocks expanding than from chemical decomposition.

Closing in on 'holy grail' of room temperature quantum computing chips

To process information, photons must interact. However, these tiny packets of light want nothing to do with each other, each passing by without altering the other. Now, researchers have coaxed photons into interacting with one another with unprecedented efficiency -- a key advance toward realizing long-awaited quantum optics technologies for computing, communication and remote sensing.

Platinum-graphene fuel cell catalysts show superior stability over bulk platinum

Films of platinum only two atoms thick supported by graphene could enable fuel cell catalysts with unprecedented catalytic activity and longevity, according to a new study.

Green light given to fruit fly's color preference

Researchers have made two unexpected discoveries. First, they found that, given a choice, fruit flies are drawn to green light early in the morning and late in the afternoon, when they are most active, and to red, or dim light, in midday, when like many humans, they slow down to eat and perhaps take a siesta.

Grizzly research reveals remarkable genetic regulation during hibernation

New RNA sequencing-based genetic research shows grizzlies express a larger number of genes in preparation for, and during hibernation to cope with such stressors, than do any other species studied.

Dust from a giant asteroid crash caused an ancient ice age

About 466 million years ago, long before the age of the dinosaurs, the Earth froze. The seas began to ice over at the Earth's poles, and new species evolved with the new temperatures. The cause of this ice age was a mystery, until now: a new study argues that the ice age was caused by global cooling, triggered by extra dust in the atmosphere from a giant asteroid collision in outer space.

A technological 'leap' in the Edomite Kingdom during the 10th century BCE

During the late 10th century BCE, the emerging Edomite Kingdom of the southern Levant experienced a 'leap' in technological advancement.

Shape-shifting robot built from 'smarticles' shows new locomotion strategy

Building conventional robots typically requires carefully combining components like motors, batteries, actuators, body segments, legs and wheels. Now, researchers have taken a new approach, building a robot entirely from smaller robots known as 'smarticles' to unlock the principles of a potentially new locomotion technique.

Learning to read boosts the visual brain

How does learning to read change our brain? Does reading take up brain space dedicated to seeing objects such as faces, tools or houses? In a functional brain imaging study, a research team compared literate and illiterate adults in India. Reading recycles a brain region that is already sensitive to evolutionarily older visual categories, enhancing rather than destroying sensitivity to other visual input.

Rethinking scenario logic for climate policy

Current scenarios used to inform climate policy have a weakness in that they typically focus on reaching specific climate goals in 2100 - an approach which may encourage risky pathways that could have long-term negative effects. A new study presents a novel scenario framework that focuses on capping global warming at a maximum level with either temperature stabilization or reversal thereafter.

Actions to save coral reefs could benefit all ecosystems

Scientists say bolder actions to protect the world's coral reefs will benefit all ecosystems, human livelihoods and improve food security.

New drug target in fight against cancer

Researchers have discovered how a cancer-linked version of the protein mitoNEET can close voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC), primary gateways in the outer surface of mitochondria. The researchers detail how mitoNEET regulates VDAC, and they show that the interactions between the two proteins could be disrupted by a drug that targets VDAC.

Towards better hand hygiene for flu prevention

Rubbing hands with ethanol-based sanitizers should provide a formidable defense against infection from flu viruses, which can thrive and spread in saliva and mucus. But new findings challenge that notion -- and suggest that there's room for improvement in this approach to hand hygiene.

Six galaxies undergoing sudden, dramatic transitions

Astronomers observed six mild-mannered LINER galaxies suddenly and surprisingly transforming into ravenous quasars -- home to the brightest of all active galactic nuclei. The team's observations could help demystify the nature of both LINERs and quasars while answering some burning questions about galactic evolution. Based on their analysis, the researchers suggest they have discovered an entirely new type of black hole activity at the centers of these six LINER galaxies.

Greenland's growing 'ice slabs' intensify meltwater runoff into ocean

Thick, impenetrable ice slabs are expanding rapidly on the interior of Greenland's ice sheet, where the ice is normally porous and able to reabsorb meltwater. These slabs are instead sending meltwater spilling into the ocean, according to a new assessment, threatening to increase the country's contribution to sea level rise by as much as 2.9 inches by 2100.

Fast MRIs offer alternative to CT scans for pediatric head injuries

Researchers have released a study that shows that a new imaging method 'fast MRI' is effective in identifying traumatic brain injuries in children, and can avoid exposure to ionizing radiation and anesthesia.

3D virtual reality models help yield better surgical outcomes

A new study has found that using three-dimensional virtual reality models to prepare for kidney tumor surgeries resulted in substantial improvements, including shorter operating times, less blood loss during surgery and a shorter stay in the hospital afterward.

Study questions routine sleep studies to evaluate snoring in children

A new finding suggests that the pediatric sleep study -- used to diagnose pediatric sleep apnea and to measure improvement after surgery -- may be an unreliable predictor of who will benefit from having an adenotonsillectomy.

Brain tumors form synapses with healthy neurons

Scientists have shown for the first time that severe brain cancers integrate into the brain's wiring.
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