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Aujourd’hui — 5 juin 2020ScienceDaily

Precision spray coating could enable solar cells with better performance and stability

Although perovskites are a promising alternative to the silicon used to make most of today's solar cells, new manufacturing processes are needed to make them practical for commercial production. To help fill this gap, researchers have developed a new precision spray-coating method that enables more complex perovskite solar cell designs and could be scaled up for mass production.

New research leads to lighter and greener bridges

A recently completed research project revealed the potential for reducing material used for a suspension bridge deck by more than 25 per cent -- meaning a saving of up to 30 per cent of CO2 emissions.
Hier — 4 juin 2020ScienceDaily

Egg-based coating preserves fresh produce

Eggs that would otherwise be wasted can be used as the base of an inexpensive coating to protect fruits and vegetables.

DNA crossovers can drive healthy, abnormal sperm, egg cell division

Human genetic diversity wouldn't be possible without DNA crossovers in egg and sperm cells. Two studies provide new insights into how crossovers go right -- and wrong, leading to infertility, miscarriages and birth defects.

Vital buffers against climate change are just offshore

A new study finds that about 31 million people worldwide live in coastal regions that are 'highly vulnerable' to future tropical storms and sea-level rise driven by climate change. But in some of those regions, powerful defenses are located just offshore, in the forms of mangroves and coral reefs, key buffers that could help cushion the blow against future tropical storms and rising waters.

A potential new weapon in the war against superbugs

Researchers have shown that a newly discovered natural antibiotic, teixobactin, could be effective in treating bacterial lung conditions such as tuberculosis and those commonly associated with COVID-19.

Australia's ancient geology controls the pathways of modern earthquakes

New research near Uluru in Australia's arid center shows that rock structures formed deep within the ancient Gondwana supercontinent controlled the rupture pathways of one of Australia's largest modern earthquakes.

New Zealanders' attitudes changed after pandemic lockdown

In the first few weeks of the lockdown of New Zealand in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, residents reported a slight increase in mental distress but higher levels of confidence in the government, science and the police, as well as greater patriotism, according to new research.

Coronavirus linked to stroke in otherwise healthy young people

Preliminary observations suggest a high incidence of COVID-19 in stroke patients, including younger patients who were otherwise healthy.

Largest, oldest Maya monument suggests importance of communal work

A new discovery suggests that the Maya civilization developed more rapidly than archaeologists once thought and hints at less social inequality than later periods.

Showtime for photosynthesis

Using a unique combination of nanoscale imaging and chemical analysis, researchers have revealed a key step in the molecular mechanism behind the water splitting reaction of photosynthesis, a finding that could help inform the design of renewable energy technology.

People try to do right by each other, no matter the motivation, study finds

Sociologists found that people overwhelmingly chose to be generous to others -- even to strangers, and even when it seems one motivation to help might crowd out another.

Breaking the mold: An unusual choice of material yields incredibly long-lasting batteries

Scientists have developed a novel silica-based cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries, thereby enabling the realization of batteries that can last for over 2000 charge/discharge cycles. The possibility of successfully using the unconventional silica could spark a paradigm shift in rechargeable battery designs.

Respiratory virus builds 'doorbell' to trick its way into cells

New research from microbiologists has shed light on how the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) -- one of the most common viral infections -- breaks into our cells to cause infection. Researchers discovered that RSV tricks cells into letting it in by essentially ringing a doorbell that calls its receptor to the virus waiting at the door.

Innocent and highly oxidizing

Chemists produce new oxidants as a tool for preparative chemistry.

Atomic blueprint of 'molecular machine' reveals role in membrane protein installation

Scientists have revealed the first known atomic structure of a 'molecular machine' responsible for installing critical signaling proteins into cellular membranes. The findings shed new light on how this process works, and lay the foundation for potential future therapies for diseases like cancer, Alzheimer's and cystic fibrosis.

Near-atomic 'blueprint' reveals inner workings of drug target for cancer, other diseases

Scientists have for the first time described the near-atomic level structure of a molecular pathway that plays critical roles in human development, blood pressure regulation, inflammation and cell death.

Fluorescence bioimaging: Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of living subjects

Scientists can monitor biomolecular processes in live tissue by noninvasive optical methods, such as fluorescence imaging. However, the fluorescent dyes used for that purpose are often rather unstable, and photobleaching, lack of specificity, and poor pharmacokinetics are recurrent issues. Scientists have now developed a molecular shield that stabilizes near-infrared fluorescent dyes and enhances their functionality.

Wearable sensor may help to assess stress in healthcare workers

A wearable biosensor may help monitor stress experienced by healthcare professionals, according to a new study.

Osteoporosis treatment may also protect against pneumonia

A recent study found that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) such as alendronate, which are widely used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis, are linked with lower risks of pneumonia and of dying from pneumonia.

What are the risks and benefits of low-dose aspirin?

Low-dose aspirin significantly lowers cardiovascular disease risk but increases the risk of bleeding, according to a new review.

Certain personality traits may affect risk of 'pre-dementia'

A study examined five personality traits -- neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness -- and their links to pre-dementia conditions called motoric cognitive risk (MCR) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) syndromes.

Scientists aim gene-targeting breakthrough against COVID-19

Scientists at Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry have joined forces with a research team at Stanford to aim a gene-targeting, antiviral agent called PAC-MAN against COVID-19.

Chronic stress? Limiting inflammatory signaling to specific brain circuits

Chronic stress is associated with the pathogenesis of psychological disorders such as depression. A study is the first to identify the role of a neuronal receptor that straddles the intersection between social stress, inflammation, and anxiety in rodent models of stress. Findings suggest the possibility of developing better medications to treat the consequences of chronic stress by limiting inflammatory signaling not just generally, which may not be beneficial in the long run, but to specific brain circuits.

Trial shows hydroxychloroquine has no benefit over placebo in preventing COVID-19

Today, researchers published the results from the first randomized clinical trial testing hydroxychloroquine for the post-exposure prevention of COVID-19.

Small see-through container improves plant micrografting

A transparent container allows easy and quick grafting of very young plants, with benefits for agriculture and plant research.

New method predicts spin dynamics of materials for quantum computing

Researchers at UC Santa Cruz have developed a theoretical foundation and new computational tools for predicting a material's spin dynamics, a key property for building solid-state quantum computing platforms and other applications of spintronics.

Association between outdoor light at night and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

Outdoor light at night was linked to a higher risk of breast cancer in a recent study.

The nature of glass-forming liquids is more clear

Researchers have found that attractive and repulsive interactions between particles are both essential to form structural order that controls the dynamics of glass-forming liquids. This knowledge will help understanding why a liquid becomes so viscous before glass formation.

COVID-19 lockdowns worsen childhood obesity, study finds

Lockdowns implemented across the world due to the COVID-19 pandemic have negatively impacted diet, sleep and physical activity among children with obesity, according to new research.